Push Type B Medical Electrical Equipment Safety and Regulation.
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Medical equipment can expose patients and caregivers to potential electrical hazards. Several international standards exist to ensure adequate protection is incorporated into equipment designs.
This article is the second in our series on advancements in medical isolation transformer design.
What Is Medical Electrical Equipment?
Medical electrical equipment is provided with no more than one connection to a particular mains supply and is intended to:
diagnose the patient
treat the patient
monitor the patient under medical supervision
make physical or electrical contact with the patient
transfer energy to or from the patient and/or detect such energy transfer
to or from the patient
The equipment includes those accessories as defined by the manufacturer which are necessary to enable the normal use of the equipment.
During normal operations and in the event of a malfunction, it is imperative that the equipment does not pose any danger to patients or medical staff. A piece of equipment that causes a short circuit or residual current can trigger a protective system upstream and in doing so shut down other, possibly life-sustaining, equipment. Thus, it is necessary to pay special attention to how each unit is supplied with power.
The use of electricity for medical diagnostic, measurement, and therapy equipment potentially exposes patients and even caregivers to the risk of electrical shock, burns, internal organ damage, and cardiac arrhythmias directly due to leakage current resulting from improper grounding and electrical isolation.Push Type B The electrical conductivity of body fluids and the presence of various conductive solutions and gels in the patient care system make this environment even more vulnerable.
Several techniques commonly provide isolation when designing electronic equipment. Careful component placement and printed-circuit-board layout can provide adequate room for creepage and clearance of components in close proximity of high voltages. Meeting these two specifications can be a tedious, time-consuming task, and each component subject to them must meet the requirements called out in the applicable standards.